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又一款新冠疫苗问世,没有想到来自这个国家

又一款新冠疫苗问世,没有想到来自这个国家

David Meyer 2021年04月29日
宣称二阶段临床试验中的有效性为96%

目前,世界上批准的新冠疫苗都来自美国、中国、英国、俄罗斯和印度等大国。不过,情况开始有所改变。

4月26日,哈萨克斯坦开始推出名为QazVac的国产疫苗。上个月底,这款疫苗曾经被重新命名,之前的名字是QazCovid-in,但哈萨克斯坦政府认为该名字可能会引起公众的反感。

该疫苗由哈萨克斯坦的生物安全问题研究所开发,宣称二阶段临床试验中的有效性为96%。最终阶段测试仍然在进行中,预计7月会有结论。但哈萨克斯坦的卫生当局决定,3000名参与者的三阶段试验只要完成超过一半就可以开始推广。

这款并不是类似强生(Johnson & Johnson)和阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)的腺病毒疫苗,也不是类似BioNTech/辉瑞(Pfizer)和Moderna的mRNA疫苗,不过对冷藏储存要求不高,这点比较接近腺病毒疫苗。该疫苗使用SARS-CoV-2病毒灭活形式,类似使用中的中国科兴疫苗和印度的Covaxin疫苗,以及尚未投入使用的Valneva疫苗。QazVac疫苗需要注射两剂,中间要隔三周。

“扭转局面”

4月26日上午,该国的卫生部部长阿列克谢·崔成为首批注射QazVac的人之一。本月初,哈萨克斯坦的总统卡瑟姆-若马尔特·托卡耶夫曾经公开斥责崔,对该国病例数量不断增加而接种工作进展缓慢表示愤怒。

“必须扭转局面,否则会宣布让你非常失望的人事任命通知。”托卡耶夫告诉崔。之前的疫苗接种主要针对一线工人,但后来有报道称,石油资源丰富的哈萨克斯坦已经启动了其他人员的疫苗接种。

到目前为止,哈萨克斯坦一直使用俄罗斯生产的Sputnik V疫苗,过去几个月均在当地生产(托卡耶夫选择先使用俄罗斯的疫苗而不是等待本国的QazVac)。到上周晚些时候,只有80多万人注射了第一针。哈萨克斯坦人口有1880万,政府计划每月向200万人提供疫苗。

4月23日,托卡耶夫在推特(Twitter)上称,将向所有本国人提供国产疫苗。如果真正实现,这将是显著的转变。而在五个星期前,哈萨克斯坦的卫生官员曾经表示,国内最大城市阿拉木图的疫苗已经用完,不久的将来实现大规模接种并不现实。

QazVac或许能够向托卡耶夫提供夸赞本国科学实力的机会,但生产仍然是瓶颈。第一批分发的剂量只有5万剂,下一批将在5月投入生产,数量也是5万剂。

4月26日,阿列克谢·崔表示,哈萨克斯坦政府正在与土耳其的制造商讨论提升产能的问题。(财富中文网)

译者:李晓维

审校:夏林

目前,世界上批准的新冠疫苗都来自美国、中国、英国、俄罗斯和印度等大国。不过,情况开始有所改变。

4月26日,哈萨克斯坦开始推出名为QazVac的国产疫苗。上个月底,这款疫苗曾经被重新命名,之前的名字是QazCovid-in,但哈萨克斯坦政府认为该名字可能会引起公众的反感。

该疫苗由哈萨克斯坦的生物安全问题研究所开发,宣称二阶段临床试验中的有效性为96%。最终阶段测试仍然在进行中,预计7月会有结论。但哈萨克斯坦的卫生当局决定,3000名参与者的三阶段试验只要完成超过一半就可以开始推广。

这款并不是类似强生(Johnson & Johnson)和阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)的腺病毒疫苗,也不是类似BioNTech/辉瑞(Pfizer)和Moderna的mRNA疫苗,不过对冷藏储存要求不高,这点比较接近腺病毒疫苗。该疫苗使用SARS-CoV-2病毒灭活形式,类似使用中的中国科兴疫苗和印度的Covaxin疫苗,以及尚未投入使用的Valneva疫苗。QazVac疫苗需要注射两剂,中间要隔三周。

“扭转局面”

4月26日上午,该国的卫生部部长阿列克谢·崔成为首批注射QazVac的人之一。本月初,哈萨克斯坦的总统卡瑟姆-若马尔特·托卡耶夫曾经公开斥责崔,对该国病例数量不断增加而接种工作进展缓慢表示愤怒。

“必须扭转局面,否则会宣布让你非常失望的人事任命通知。”托卡耶夫告诉崔。之前的疫苗接种主要针对一线工人,但后来有报道称,石油资源丰富的哈萨克斯坦已经启动了其他人员的疫苗接种。

到目前为止,哈萨克斯坦一直使用俄罗斯生产的Sputnik V疫苗,过去几个月均在当地生产(托卡耶夫选择先使用俄罗斯的疫苗而不是等待本国的QazVac)。到上周晚些时候,只有80多万人注射了第一针。哈萨克斯坦人口有1880万,政府计划每月向200万人提供疫苗。

4月23日,托卡耶夫在推特(Twitter)上称,将向所有本国人提供国产疫苗。如果真正实现,这将是显著的转变。而在五个星期前,哈萨克斯坦的卫生官员曾经表示,国内最大城市阿拉木图的疫苗已经用完,不久的将来实现大规模接种并不现实。

QazVac或许能够向托卡耶夫提供夸赞本国科学实力的机会,但生产仍然是瓶颈。第一批分发的剂量只有5万剂,下一批将在5月投入生产,数量也是5万剂。

4月26日,阿列克谢·崔表示,哈萨克斯坦政府正在与土耳其的制造商讨论提升产能的问题。(财富中文网)

译者:李晓维

审校:夏林

The world’s approved COVID-19 vaccines have all come from large economies such as the U.S., China, the U.K., Russia, and India. Until today.

On April 26, Kazakhstan started rolling out its homegrown vaccine, now known as QazVac. Before a rebranding at the end of last month, it was called QazCovid-in, but the central Asian country’s government decided that name might be a turnoff for the public.

The vaccine was developed by Kazakhstan’s Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, which claimed 96% efficacy in the second stage of clinical trials. The final phase is still ongoing, with a conclusion expected in July, but Kazakh health authorities decided it was fine to begin the rollout as long as the 3,000-participant Phase III trial was at least halfway finished.

This isn’t an adenovirus vector vaccine like those from Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca—though it does share their relatively mild refrigeration requirements—nor is it an mRNA-based jab like the BioNTech/Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. Instead, it uses an inactivated form of the SARS-CoV-2 virus itself, much like China’s CoronaVac and India’s Covaxin, which are both in use, and Valneva’s vaccine, which isn’t there yet. The QazVac regimen comprises two doses, to be administered three weeks apart.

“Turn the tide”

Health Minister Alexei Tsoi was one of the first QazVac recipients on April 26 morning. Tsoi was at the start of this month on the receiving end of a public dressing-down by President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, who was furious about the sluggish start to the country’s inoculation campaign amid rising case numbers.

“You must turn the tide, otherwise a personnel decision that is going to be very disappointing for you will follow,” Tokayev told Tsoi. The vaccination campaign, which had previously focused on frontline workers, then reportedly sprang to life for others too in the oil-rich country.

Thus far, Kazakhstan’s vaccination drive has been powered by Russia’s Sputnik V, which has been produced locally for the past couple of months (Tokayev opted for the Russian shot, rather than waiting for QazVac). By late last week, just over 800,000 people had received their first dose. Kazakhstan has a population of 18.8 million people; the government plans to inoculate 2 million each month.

Tokayev tweeted on April 23 that domestic production would provide vaccine availability to all citizens. If so, that would be a remarkable turnaround—Almaty health officials said five weeks ago that the largest Kazakh city had run out of vaccines, and mass vaccination would not be realistic in the near future.

QazVac may have given Tokayev the opportunity to praise Kazakhstan’s scientific prowess, but production remains a bottleneck. The first batch to be distributed runs to only 50,000 doses, and the next tranche, to be produced in May, will be of the same volume.

Tsoi said on April 26 that the Kazakh government was talking to Turkish manufacturers about increasing production capacity.

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