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管理专家:扎克伯格缺少两种必要的领导品质

管理专家:扎克伯格缺少两种必要的领导品质

Jane Thier 2021年11月10日
Facebook的前任产品经理在向美国证券交易委员会递交的投诉中表示,扎克伯格在公司内可以“一手遮天、独断专行”,因此应该对该公司造成的伤害承担“最终责任”。

过去几周,马克·扎克伯格过得很艰难。今年10月,在一场具有轰动效应的美国政府委员会听证会上,Facebook公司的前任产品经理、“吹哨人”弗朗西丝·豪根指责这家由扎克伯格创立的社交网络巨头一直将牟利作为优先考虑事项,而非对误导性信息、仇恨言论和其他公开威胁进行打击。

10月4日,豪根向美国参议院商业、科学和交通委员会(Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation)报告称:“公司领导层十分清楚让Facebook和Instagram变得更为安全的方法,却不愿意做出必要改变,因为他们把牟取巨额利润而非保障民众利益当作自己的首要任务,美国国会需要采取行动(促使该公司做出改变)。”

豪根说,该公司的领导层正在阻止Facebook和新改组的母公司——Meta对公司文化进行合理优化。11月1日,她在葡萄牙里斯本的网络峰会(Web Summit)上面对4万观众表示,扎克伯格应该辞去Facebook母公司Meta的首席执行官职务。

豪根在谈到扎克伯格时说:“我希望他能够看到,如果把这份工作交给别人,他就可以为这个世界做许多有益的事情。”她还补充道,如果他继续把持公司大权,那么公司内部就不太可能发生变化。她表示,对这家价值数十亿美元的企业而言,要想变得更加强大,就需要更换一位关注用户安全的领导者。

豪根对于扎克伯格的个人责任向来直言不讳。据《华盛顿邮报》(The Washington Post)报道,豪根在向美国证券交易委员会(SEC)递交的投诉中表示,扎克伯格在公司内可以“一手遮天、独断专行”,因此应该对该公司造成的伤害承担“最终责任”。在豪根作证后不久,扎克伯格在Facebook上写道:“这些指控的核心在于,我们将牟利置于安全、幸福等问题之上,但事实并非如此。我还不曾见过以打造令用户愤怒或沮丧的产品为目标的科技公司。无论是道德、商业,还是产品方面的因素,都激励我们选择与此相反的方向。”

2020年10月,Facebook的前任公民诚信部门主管萨米德·查克拉巴蒂在推特(Twitter)上回应扎克伯格是否应该继续担任公司首席执行官一职时说:“创始人及首席执行官在公司内拥有超然权力,能够大刀阔斧地开展各项工作。但‘信任赤字’问题确实存在,分散领导权或许更利于(Facebook)未来的发展。”

虽然外界要求扎克伯格下台的声音很多,各种负面报道也持续不断,但扎克伯格似乎并未准备让出自己的位子,将这家自己创立于2004年的公司交给他人管理。作为创始人、首席执行官和董事会主席,他和他的盟友控制着Facebook近60%的投票权。上周,扎克伯格在接受《The Verge》采访时表示,他认为,自己未来五年“可能”继续在公司内担任各种领导工作。他说:“我没有想过自己还要做多久,只能说我对我们公司未来想做的事情感到非常期待。”

不管可能性有多小,我们都不妨试想一下,如果扎克伯格卸任下台,谁可以接替他的位置?

领导的原则

纽约大学(New York University)斯特恩商学院(Stern School of Business)的副教授杰弗里·杨格在11月3日接受《财富》杂志采访时指出,社会对企业的期望正在发生巨大的、渐进式的转变。

只需要看一下《2021年爱德曼信任晴雨表》(Edelman’s 2021 Trust Barometer)就能够明显看出这种趋势。该报告对全球33000多名受访者的公众情绪进行了调查,结果显示:68%的受访者认为“当政府不解决社会问题时,首席执行官应该介入”;64%的受访者认为,首席执行不仅要对董事会或股东负责,还要对公众负责。

要想达到这些标准,Facebook就需要对自己的内核进行深度改造。杨格说:“包括Facebook在内,考虑到这些跨国企业所拥有的力量和资源,任何政府都不可能通过立法限制或有效约束其外部性的深度和广度。豪根的爆料已经表明,基于其首选的商业模式,Facebook自身社会安全网络的效能非常低下。”

据纽约大学斯特恩商学院的领导力加速器(Leadership Accelerator)项目表明,有效、合乎道德的领导力需要具备六大核心价值观,即敏捷的反应、创新思维、持续学习、行动导向、包容性以及自我意识。

“在我看来,扎克伯格缺少最后两大品质。”杨格说,“包容性(欣赏另类思维模式的能力)和自我意识(由个人价值观与目标演化而来)。”

上述特质进一步丰富了百事公司(PepsiCo)的前首席执行官卢英德(Indra Nooyi)列出的“5C”领导技能:能力、勇气与信心、沟通技巧、一致性和指导性,或道德操守。杨格表示,卢英德将可以很好地扮演Facebook下一任首席执行官的角色。

评论专栏作家卡拉·斯威舍在《纽约时报》(New York Times)上提出了自己眼中可能替代扎克伯格的潜在人选,其中包括最近晋升为首席技术官、在Facebook供职已经有15年的安德鲁·博斯沃思,以及首席产品官克里斯·考克斯。

“扎克伯格也能够像以前一样坚持己见,等着事情自动向好的方向发展。”斯威舍补充道,“他现在依然是华尔街的宠儿,在他的领导下,Facebook的财务业绩可谓光彩照人,而他那出奇沉默的董事会……则是乐得坐享其成。”

进行损害控制

接替扎克伯格职位的领导者将会接手相关争议和负面声誉,这些问题本身就会给整合造成困难。

2019年8月,电子商务巨头Overstock的创始人及首席执行官在发布“深层政府阴谋论”后辞职下台,在该公司供职近20年的乔纳森·约翰逊接棒成为该公司的首席执行官。

过去两年,在约翰逊的领导下,Overstock进行了重大改革,并取得了巨大的成功,而约翰逊则被视为相关成绩背后的最大功臣。他在接受《Inc.》采访时说:“我们当时深陷亏损困局,业务也持续萎缩,经营缺乏重点。我们有27项所谓的重点工作,这就跟没有重点一样。(为解决这一问题)我们花了很多时间来缩小关注范围。”

约翰逊表示,在他看来,其之所以能够在未知领域取得成功,关键在于可以持续获得真实反馈。他认为,董事会成员或同事出于保护自身利益的目的,有时即便首席执行官的想法不好,他们也会表示赞同,导致首席执行官最后只是花钱养了一些逢迎附和的“朋友”。

豪根在圆桌论坛收尾时称,在Facebook,扎克伯格的错误并未导致其本人或整个公司变得无可救药,但他在意识到自己的错误所带来的连锁反应之后一直没有采取相应行动,仅此一点,他就应该下台。

作为一家反应敏捷、一直非常成功的企业,再加上其巨大的影响力,Facebook的未来仍然非常值得其领导者期待。杨格说:“领导力源于许多微小的领导机会。与自上而下的方式不同,每时每刻都是单独的交流机会,在进行每一次交流时,你都需要跳出自我,与对方产生共鸣。”

斯德哥尔摩经济学院(Stockholm School of Economics)的助理教授徐宁(音译)在接受《财富》杂志采访时称:“领导者是公司员工的榜样,其一言一行都会被组织中所有人所关注。无论是否涉及道德问题,(领导者的做法都会给手下员工)定下基调。”

对于像Facebook这样每天影响着数十亿人的公司而言尤其如此,一位理想的领导者会对其可能做出的每一个决定都抱有深深的同理心。杨格说:“部分顶级领导者就像海绵一般(能够充分理解对方的感受)。”

徐宁补充道:“传统上,我们认为领导者应当杀伐决断,但现在,我们则希望他们能够更有同理心,可以设身处地为他人着想。他们也应该切实把客户利益放在自身利益之上。”(财富中文网)

译者:梁宇

审校:夏林

过去几周,马克·扎克伯格过得很艰难。今年10月,在一场具有轰动效应的美国政府委员会听证会上,Facebook公司的前任产品经理、“吹哨人”弗朗西丝·豪根指责这家由扎克伯格创立的社交网络巨头一直将牟利作为优先考虑事项,而非对误导性信息、仇恨言论和其他公开威胁进行打击。

10月4日,豪根向美国参议院商业、科学和交通委员会(Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation)报告称:“公司领导层十分清楚让Facebook和Instagram变得更为安全的方法,却不愿意做出必要改变,因为他们把牟取巨额利润而非保障民众利益当作自己的首要任务,美国国会需要采取行动(促使该公司做出改变)。”

豪根说,该公司的领导层正在阻止Facebook和新改组的母公司——Meta对公司文化进行合理优化。11月1日,她在葡萄牙里斯本的网络峰会(Web Summit)上面对4万观众表示,扎克伯格应该辞去Facebook母公司Meta的首席执行官职务。

豪根在谈到扎克伯格时说:“我希望他能够看到,如果把这份工作交给别人,他就可以为这个世界做许多有益的事情。”她还补充道,如果他继续把持公司大权,那么公司内部就不太可能发生变化。她表示,对这家价值数十亿美元的企业而言,要想变得更加强大,就需要更换一位关注用户安全的领导者。

豪根对于扎克伯格的个人责任向来直言不讳。据《华盛顿邮报》(The Washington Post)报道,豪根在向美国证券交易委员会(SEC)递交的投诉中表示,扎克伯格在公司内可以“一手遮天、独断专行”,因此应该对该公司造成的伤害承担“最终责任”。在豪根作证后不久,扎克伯格在Facebook上写道:“这些指控的核心在于,我们将牟利置于安全、幸福等问题之上,但事实并非如此。我还不曾见过以打造令用户愤怒或沮丧的产品为目标的科技公司。无论是道德、商业,还是产品方面的因素,都激励我们选择与此相反的方向。”

2020年10月,Facebook的前任公民诚信部门主管萨米德·查克拉巴蒂在推特(Twitter)上回应扎克伯格是否应该继续担任公司首席执行官一职时说:“创始人及首席执行官在公司内拥有超然权力,能够大刀阔斧地开展各项工作。但‘信任赤字’问题确实存在,分散领导权或许更利于(Facebook)未来的发展。”

虽然外界要求扎克伯格下台的声音很多,各种负面报道也持续不断,但扎克伯格似乎并未准备让出自己的位子,将这家自己创立于2004年的公司交给他人管理。作为创始人、首席执行官和董事会主席,他和他的盟友控制着Facebook近60%的投票权。上周,扎克伯格在接受《The Verge》采访时表示,他认为,自己未来五年“可能”继续在公司内担任各种领导工作。他说:“我没有想过自己还要做多久,只能说我对我们公司未来想做的事情感到非常期待。”

不管可能性有多小,我们都不妨试想一下,如果扎克伯格卸任下台,谁可以接替他的位置?

领导的原则

纽约大学(New York University)斯特恩商学院(Stern School of Business)的副教授杰弗里·杨格在11月3日接受《财富》杂志采访时指出,社会对企业的期望正在发生巨大的、渐进式的转变。

只需要看一下《2021年爱德曼信任晴雨表》(Edelman’s 2021 Trust Barometer)就能够明显看出这种趋势。该报告对全球33000多名受访者的公众情绪进行了调查,结果显示:68%的受访者认为“当政府不解决社会问题时,首席执行官应该介入”;64%的受访者认为,首席执行不仅要对董事会或股东负责,还要对公众负责。

要想达到这些标准,Facebook就需要对自己的内核进行深度改造。杨格说:“包括Facebook在内,考虑到这些跨国企业所拥有的力量和资源,任何政府都不可能通过立法限制或有效约束其外部性的深度和广度。豪根的爆料已经表明,基于其首选的商业模式,Facebook自身社会安全网络的效能非常低下。”

据纽约大学斯特恩商学院的领导力加速器(Leadership Accelerator)项目表明,有效、合乎道德的领导力需要具备六大核心价值观,即敏捷的反应、创新思维、持续学习、行动导向、包容性以及自我意识。

“在我看来,扎克伯格缺少最后两大品质。”杨格说,“包容性(欣赏另类思维模式的能力)和自我意识(由个人价值观与目标演化而来)。”

上述特质进一步丰富了百事公司(PepsiCo)的前首席执行官卢英德(Indra Nooyi)列出的“5C”领导技能:能力、勇气与信心、沟通技巧、一致性和指导性,或道德操守。杨格表示,卢英德将可以很好地扮演Facebook下一任首席执行官的角色。

评论专栏作家卡拉·斯威舍在《纽约时报》(New York Times)上提出了自己眼中可能替代扎克伯格的潜在人选,其中包括最近晋升为首席技术官、在Facebook供职已经有15年的安德鲁·博斯沃思,以及首席产品官克里斯·考克斯。

“扎克伯格也能够像以前一样坚持己见,等着事情自动向好的方向发展。”斯威舍补充道,“他现在依然是华尔街的宠儿,在他的领导下,Facebook的财务业绩可谓光彩照人,而他那出奇沉默的董事会……则是乐得坐享其成。”

进行损害控制

接替扎克伯格职位的领导者将会接手相关争议和负面声誉,这些问题本身就会给整合造成困难。

2019年8月,电子商务巨头Overstock的创始人及首席执行官在发布“深层政府阴谋论”后辞职下台,在该公司供职近20年的乔纳森·约翰逊接棒成为该公司的首席执行官。

过去两年,在约翰逊的领导下,Overstock进行了重大改革,并取得了巨大的成功,而约翰逊则被视为相关成绩背后的最大功臣。他在接受《Inc.》采访时说:“我们当时深陷亏损困局,业务也持续萎缩,经营缺乏重点。我们有27项所谓的重点工作,这就跟没有重点一样。(为解决这一问题)我们花了很多时间来缩小关注范围。”

约翰逊表示,在他看来,其之所以能够在未知领域取得成功,关键在于可以持续获得真实反馈。他认为,董事会成员或同事出于保护自身利益的目的,有时即便首席执行官的想法不好,他们也会表示赞同,导致首席执行官最后只是花钱养了一些逢迎附和的“朋友”。

豪根在圆桌论坛收尾时称,在Facebook,扎克伯格的错误并未导致其本人或整个公司变得无可救药,但他在意识到自己的错误所带来的连锁反应之后一直没有采取相应行动,仅此一点,他就应该下台。

作为一家反应敏捷、一直非常成功的企业,再加上其巨大的影响力,Facebook的未来仍然非常值得其领导者期待。杨格说:“领导力源于许多微小的领导机会。与自上而下的方式不同,每时每刻都是单独的交流机会,在进行每一次交流时,你都需要跳出自我,与对方产生共鸣。”

斯德哥尔摩经济学院(Stockholm School of Economics)的助理教授徐宁(音译)在接受《财富》杂志采访时称:“领导者是公司员工的榜样,其一言一行都会被组织中所有人所关注。无论是否涉及道德问题,(领导者的做法都会给手下员工)定下基调。”

对于像Facebook这样每天影响着数十亿人的公司而言尤其如此,一位理想的领导者会对其可能做出的每一个决定都抱有深深的同理心。杨格说:“部分顶级领导者就像海绵一般(能够充分理解对方的感受)。”

徐宁补充道:“传统上,我们认为领导者应当杀伐决断,但现在,我们则希望他们能够更有同理心,可以设身处地为他人着想。他们也应该切实把客户利益放在自身利益之上。”(财富中文网)

译者:梁宇

审校:夏林

It’s been a difficult few weeks to be Mark Zuckerberg. Last month, in an explosive government committee hearing, whistleblower Frances Haugen, a former product manager, accused the social networking giant he founded of prioritizing profit over beating back misinformation, hate speech and other public threats.

“The company’s leadership knows ways to make Facebook and Instagram safer and won’t make the necessary changes because they have put their immense profits before people,” Haugen told the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation on October 4th. “Congressional action is needed.”

The leadership in question is preventing Facebook, and newly revamped parent company Meta, from legitimately improving its culture, Haugen said. On November 1, she told a crowd of 40,000 at the Web Summit in Lisbon, Portugal, that Zuckerberg should step down as CEO of Facebook parent Meta.

“I hope he can see there is so much good he can do in the world if he gave the chance to someone else,” Haugen said of Zuckerberg, adding that internal changes are unlikely if he retains power. To become stronger, the billion-dollar company needs a leader who will focus on user safety, she said.

Haugen has been outspoken about Zuckerberg's personal culpability. In her SEC complaints, Haugen said Zuckerberg's "singular power and unique level of control" over the company gives him the "ultimate responsibility" for the harm it causes, The Washington Post reported. "At the heart of these accusations is this idea that we prioritize profit over safety and well-being," Zuckerberg wrote in a Facebook post shortly after Haugen's testimony. "That's just not true. I don't know any tech company that sets out to build products that make people angry or depressed. The moral, business and product incentives all point in the opposite direction."

“Founder-CEOs have superpowers that allow them to do courageous things. Mark has done that time and again,” Samidh Chakrabarti, Facebook's former civic integrity unit head, tweeted in October in response to a question of whether Zuckerberg should keep his job. “But the trust deficit is real, and [Facebook] may now better prosper under distributed leadership.”

Despite the urges and persistent bad press, Zuckerberg hasn't indicated he's ready to vacate the seat he’s held since founding the company in 2004. As founder, CEO and board chairman, he and his allies control nearly 60% of Facebook’s voting shares. Last week, Zuckerberg told The Verge he “probably” still sees himself in his assorted leadership positions in five years. “I don’t have a specific date how long I want to be doing this for,” he said. “I guess what I could say is I’m very excited about the next chapter of what we’re doing.”

However unlikely, consider: if Zuckerberg were to step down, who would be fit to fill his shoes?

Tenets of leadership

There’s been a massive, gradual shift in societal expectations of a business, and, by extension, their CEOs, Jeffrey Younger, associate professor at New York University’s Stern School of Business, told Fortune on November 3.

Look no further than Edelman’s 2021 Trust Barometer, which measured public sentiment across a group of over 33,000 global respondents. Sixty-eight percent of those respondents said “CEOs should step in when the government does not fix societal problems,” and 64% said CEOs should hold themselves accountable not just to their board of directors or shareholders, but to the public.

To meet these standards, Facebook would, at its core, require a deep revamp. “Given the power and resources of multinational businesses, including Facebook, no government could either legislate or effectively enforce the depth and breadth of Facebook externalities,” Younger said. “Haugen has shown, based on its preferred business model, Facebook’s own societal safety net is sorely lacking.”

Effective, ethical leadership requires six core values, according to NYU Stern’s Leadership Accelerator program: agility, an innovative mindset, continuous learning, action-orientation, inclusivity and self-awareness.

“To my mind, [Zuckerberg] lacks the last two,” Younger said. “Inclusivity (the ability to appreciate alternative mindsets) and self-awareness (an evolved sense of personal values and purpose).”

These attributes complement the “5 C’s” of leadership skills outlined by former PepsiCo CEO Indra Nooyi: competency, courage and confidence, communication skills, consistency and compass, or moral integrity. Nooyi, Younger said, would thrive as Facebook's next chief executive.

In the New York Times, opinion columnist Kara Swisher floated potential ideas for a Zuckerberg replacement, including Andrew Bosworth, a 15-year Facebook veteran recently promoted to chief technology officer, and Chris Cox, its chief product officer.

“Zuckerberg could also stand pat and hope for the best, as he has before,” Swisher added. “Wall Street still loves him. His financial results shine. And his curiously silent board ... is a willing accomplice.”

Executing damage control

The leader to fill Zuckerberg’s shoes would inherit a windfall of controversy and a negative reputation, which presents integration problems of its own.

After nearly two decades with e-commerce giant Overstock, Jonathan Johnson became its CEO in August 2019, when its founder and CEO resigned after issuing “deep state conspir­acy theories.”

“We were losing money; we were shrinking; we were unfocused,” Johnson, who is credited with Overstock’s massive turnaround and runaway success over the past two years, told Inc. “We had 27 quote-unquote key initiatives, which is like having no key initiatives. We spent a lot of time narrowing our focus.”

Key to Johnson’s success as a leader in uncharted waters, he said, was having a steady stream of honest feedback. CEOs risk creating an echo chamber of what he calls “paid friends”: board members or coworkers who tell CEOs “all their bad ideas are good ideas because they want to stay on the payroll.”

At Facebook, Zuckerberg’s mistakes don’t make him, or the company, irredeemable, Haugen said towards the end of her panel. But his failure to act since becoming aware of the ripple effects of his mistakes still warrants his removal.

As an agile, continuously successful enterprise, Facebook would remain an exciting company to lead, particularly because of its vast reach. “Leadership is filled with small leadership opportunities,” Younger said. “Instead of an overarching top-down approach, every moment is a separate communication opportunity, and with each one, you need to get out of your own skin and empathize with the audience.”

“As a leader, you’re a role model, and people in your organization are watching how you behave,” Ning Xu, an assistant professor at the Stockholm School of Economics, told Fortune. “Morally or immorally, that sets the tone.”

Particularly at a company like Facebook, which affects billions of people each day, an ideal leader would have a deep well of empathy tied to each decision he or she may make. “Some of the best leaders are amazing sponges,” Younger said.

“We traditionally think of leaders as assertive, but nowadays, we expect them to be more empathetic, and able to put themselves in others’ shoes,” Xu added. “And they really ought to put their customers’ interests before their own.”

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