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美国新增就业26.6万个,但仍有行业“招工难”

美国新增就业26.6万个,但仍有行业“招工难”

Christopher Rugaber, 美联社 2021年05月10日
餐饮、酒店和娱乐场所成为招工缺口最大的行业。

2021年4月,美国就业市场的新增就业岗位仅有26.6万个,显著低于3月,这也表明,随着美国经济的逐步复苏,一些企业已经出现了“招工难”的问题。

美国劳工部(Labor Department)于5月7日指出,随着美国的新增确诊病例数逐步下降,各州以及地方层面纷纷放松了防疫限制,美国就业市场的新增就业岗位数已经连续四个月保持上升。但尽管如此,美国的失业率仍然从3月的6%上升至6.1%。

与此同时,人们对经济复苏的乐观情绪也在增强。很多人在拿到1400美元的联邦救济金后,手头已经宽绰了一些。另外,很多人去年基本上都省下了旅游、娱乐和外出就餐的支出,所以也有了不少储蓄。数百万消费者已经开始下馆子、买机票、自驾游,乃至买车、买房了。

在各行各业中,上个月裁员最多的是临时性岗位,大约裁掉了11.1万个职位。建筑行业今年3月增加了9.7万个工作岗位,但4月基本没有再增长。制造业3月增加了5.4万个就业,但4月又减少了1.8个。运输和仓储行业的就业在经历了好几个月的稳定增长后,于4月减少了7.4万个岗位。

相比之下,餐饮、酒店和娱乐场所成为招工缺口最大的行业。今年3月,餐饮娱乐行业新增就业20.6万个,4月继续新增就业33.1万个。

在5月7日的一份月报中,美国政府将3月的新增就业预期从此前的91.6万个,下调至77万个。

多数经济学家认为,随着疫苗接种率的提高,加上数万亿美元的政府援助惠及了整个国民经济,美国的就业形势还将进一步向好。有分析人士认为,就算美国的确诊病例数再次大幅增长,美国的大多数州和城市可能也不会再对商业实施严格限制。据咨询公司Oxford Economics预测,今年美国就业市场的新增就业数将达到800个。到今年年底,美国的失业率将下降至4.3%的低位。

美国经济的复苏速度如此之快,导致不少企业都有些措手不及——尤其是那些被疫情打击得最惨的餐饮娱乐行业,它们甚至面临着招不到人的窘境。另外,一些失业者害怕感染新冠病毒,目前也不愿意找工作。

不少在疫情期间失业的人并未回到原来的岗位上,而是找了新的工作。此外还有很多职场女性都辞职做了全职妈妈,现在仍然要在家照顾孩子。

当14个月前美国刚刚爆发疫情时,美国有数千万人失去了工作,美国经济也陷入了停摆,现在的就业增长,只不过是在填补那时造成的缺口。目前美国的就业市场仍然比疫情前少了800多万个就业岗位。

今年3月初,拜登政府批准了一笔1.9万亿美元的救助计划,从而维持了美国人的收入和购买力。这笔救助计划的效果要好于以前的几次经济危机。今年前三个月,美国经济较上年同期增长了6.4%,表现相当强劲。据亚特兰大联邦储备银行(Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta)估计,今年4月至6月,美国的经济增速甚至有望达到13%。

美国政府在上周发布的一份报告显示,今年第一季度,美国就业市场的工资和福利水平也在稳步增长,这说明一些企业不得不提高待遇来吸引和留住员工。目前美国的空缺职位的数量已经远高于疫情前的水平,不过当下美国劳动力市场的规模——也就是已经找到工作和正在找工作的人数,仍然比疫情前少了400万人左右。

此外,美国的经济复苏形势依然极不均衡。在过去的一年里,大多数受过高等教育的白领员工都能够在家工作。很多人不仅攒下了一笔储蓄,而且房价上涨和股市创纪录的上涨,使他们的财富反而有所增加。

相比之下,最容易被裁员的,主要是那些低薪劳动者、少数族裔和没有接受过高等教育的劳动者。而且很多职场女性不得不辞掉工作,去照顾孩子。

在拜登的救济计划出台后,美国的失业救济金每周又增加了300美元。假设你上一份工作的年收入不足32000美元,那么现在,你的失业救济金比你之前工作的收入都要多。这样一来,美国至少有100万人会选择继续领救济金,而不是找工作。另外,股价和房价的上涨,也可能导致120万美国中老年人选择提前退休。

尽管如此,一些经济学家指出,雇主们还是会提供更高的薪酬,以吸引更多的人回到就业市场上。(财富中文网)

译者:朴成奎

2021年4月,美国就业市场的新增就业岗位仅有26.6万个,显著低于3月,这也表明,随着美国经济的逐步复苏,一些企业已经出现了“招工难”的问题。

美国劳工部(Labor Department)于5月7日指出,随着美国的新增确诊病例数逐步下降,各州以及地方层面纷纷放松了防疫限制,美国就业市场的新增就业岗位数已经连续四个月保持上升。但尽管如此,美国的失业率仍然从3月的6%上升至6.1%。

与此同时,人们对经济复苏的乐观情绪也在增强。很多人在拿到1400美元的联邦救济金后,手头已经宽绰了一些。另外,很多人去年基本上都省下了旅游、娱乐和外出就餐的支出,所以也有了不少储蓄。数百万消费者已经开始下馆子、买机票、自驾游,乃至买车、买房了。

在各行各业中,上个月裁员最多的是临时性岗位,大约裁掉了11.1万个职位。建筑行业今年3月增加了9.7万个工作岗位,但4月基本没有再增长。制造业3月增加了5.4万个就业,但4月又减少了1.8个。运输和仓储行业的就业在经历了好几个月的稳定增长后,于4月减少了7.4万个岗位。

相比之下,餐饮、酒店和娱乐场所成为招工缺口最大的行业。今年3月,餐饮娱乐行业新增就业20.6万个,4月继续新增就业33.1万个。

在5月7日的一份月报中,美国政府将3月的新增就业预期从此前的91.6万个,下调至77万个。

多数经济学家认为,随着疫苗接种率的提高,加上数万亿美元的政府援助惠及了整个国民经济,美国的就业形势还将进一步向好。有分析人士认为,就算美国的确诊病例数再次大幅增长,美国的大多数州和城市可能也不会再对商业实施严格限制。据咨询公司Oxford Economics预测,今年美国就业市场的新增就业数将达到800个。到今年年底,美国的失业率将下降至4.3%的低位。

美国经济的复苏速度如此之快,导致不少企业都有些措手不及——尤其是那些被疫情打击得最惨的餐饮娱乐行业,它们甚至面临着招不到人的窘境。另外,一些失业者害怕感染新冠病毒,目前也不愿意找工作。

不少在疫情期间失业的人并未回到原来的岗位上,而是找了新的工作。此外还有很多职场女性都辞职做了全职妈妈,现在仍然要在家照顾孩子。

当14个月前美国刚刚爆发疫情时,美国有数千万人失去了工作,美国经济也陷入了停摆,现在的就业增长,只不过是在填补那时造成的缺口。目前美国的就业市场仍然比疫情前少了800多万个就业岗位。

今年3月初,拜登政府批准了一笔1.9万亿美元的救助计划,从而维持了美国人的收入和购买力。这笔救助计划的效果要好于以前的几次经济危机。今年前三个月,美国经济较上年同期增长了6.4%,表现相当强劲。据亚特兰大联邦储备银行(Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta)估计,今年4月至6月,美国的经济增速甚至有望达到13%。

美国政府在上周发布的一份报告显示,今年第一季度,美国就业市场的工资和福利水平也在稳步增长,这说明一些企业不得不提高待遇来吸引和留住员工。目前美国的空缺职位的数量已经远高于疫情前的水平,不过当下美国劳动力市场的规模——也就是已经找到工作和正在找工作的人数,仍然比疫情前少了400万人左右。

此外,美国的经济复苏形势依然极不均衡。在过去的一年里,大多数受过高等教育的白领员工都能够在家工作。很多人不仅攒下了一笔储蓄,而且房价上涨和股市创纪录的上涨,使他们的财富反而有所增加。

相比之下,最容易被裁员的,主要是那些低薪劳动者、少数族裔和没有接受过高等教育的劳动者。而且很多职场女性不得不辞掉工作,去照顾孩子。

在拜登的救济计划出台后,美国的失业救济金每周又增加了300美元。假设你上一份工作的年收入不足32000美元,那么现在,你的失业救济金比你之前工作的收入都要多。这样一来,美国至少有100万人会选择继续领救济金,而不是找工作。另外,股价和房价的上涨,也可能导致120万美国中老年人选择提前退休。

尽管如此,一些经济学家指出,雇主们还是会提供更高的薪酬,以吸引更多的人回到就业市场上。(财富中文网)

译者:朴成奎

America’s employers added just 266,000 jobs last month, sharply lower than in March and a sign that some businesses are struggling to find enough workers as the economic recovery strengthens.

With viral cases declining and states and localities easing restrictions, businesses have added jobs for four straight months, the Labor Department said on May 7. Still, the unemployment rate ticked up to 6.1% from 6% in March.

At the same time, optimism about the economic recovery is growing. Many Americans are flush with cash after having received $1,400 federal relief checks, along with savings they have built up after cutting back on travel, entertainment and dining out over the past year. Millions of consumers have begun spending their extra cash on restaurant meals, airline tickets, road trips and new cars and homes.

Among industries, the sharpest loss last month was in temporary work, which shed 111,000 jobs. Construction companies added no jobs in April after having added 97,000 in March. Manufacturing lost 18,000 positions after hiring 54,000 the previous month. And transportation and warehousing cut 74,000 jobs after months of solid gains.

By contrast, restaurants, hotels, and entertainment venues—businesses that have complained the loudest about a shortage of workers—added 331,000 jobs in April, even more than their 206,000 increase in March.

In its monthly report on May 7, the government also sharply lowered its estimate of March’s job gain to 770,000 from its earlier estimate of 916,000.

Most economists expect job growth to strengthen as more vaccinations are administered and trillions in government aid spreads through the economy. Even if another uptick in COVID-19 cases were to occur, analysts don’t expect most states and cities to reimpose tough business restrictions. Oxford Economics, a consulting firm, predicts that a total of 8 million jobs will be added this year, reducing the unemployment rate to a low 4.3% by year’s end.

Still, the economic rebound has been so fast that many businesses, particularly in the hard-hit hospitality sector—which includes restaurants, bars and hotels—have been caught flat-footed and unable to fill all their job openings. Some unemployed people have also been reluctant to look for work because they fear catching the virus.

Others have entered new occupations rather than return to their old jobs. And many women, especially working mothers, have had to leave the workforce to care for children.

Most of the hiring so far represents a bounce-back after tens of millions of positions were lost when the pandemic flattened the economy 14 months ago. The economy remains more than 8 million jobs short of its pre-pandemic level.

The Biden administration’s $1.9 trillion rescue package, approved in early March, has helped maintain Americans’ incomes and purchasing power, much more so than in previous recessions. The economy expanded at a vigorous 6.4% annual rate in the first three months of the year. That pace could accelerate to as high as 13% in the April-June quarter, according to the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.

One government report last week showed that wages and benefits rose at a solid pace in the first quarter, suggesting that some companies are having to pay more to attract and keep employees. In fact, the number of open jobs is now significantly above pre-pandemic levels, though the size of the labor force—the number of Americans either working or looking for work—is still smaller by about 4 million people.

In addition, the recovery remains sharply uneven: Most college-educated and white collar employees have been able to work from home over the past year. Many have not only built up savings but have also expanded their wealth as a result of rising home values and a record-setting stock market.

By contrast, job cuts have fallen heavily on low-wage workers, racial minorities and people without college educations. In addition, many women, especially working mothers, have had to leave the workforce to care for children.

Biden’s relief package also added $300 to weekly unemployment benefits. Meyer calculated that for people who earned under $32,000 a year at their previous job, current unemployment aid pays more than their former job did—a reality that could keep up to 1 million people out of the workforce. In addition, higher stock prices and home values might have led up to 1.2 million older Americans to retire earlier than they otherwise would have.

Still, some economists say employers will have to offer higher pay to draw more people back into the job market.

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