立即打开
《对话麦道夫》:首次揭秘史上最大的庞氏骗局

《对话麦道夫》:首次揭秘史上最大的庞氏骗局

Geoff Colvin 2021年04月14日
有关麦道夫本人的疑团最吸引人

2008年12月11日上午,纽约知名律师艾克·索尔金正在华盛顿特区一所幼儿园里看着孙女玩耍。上午9点半左右,他的手机响了。打来电话的是他的一位客户——伯尼·麦道夫,后者开口说道:“我被联邦调查局抓了,现在正铐在他们总部的椅子上,我需要你的帮助。”索尔金后来回忆道:“11号早上打电话给我之前,麦道夫已经向联邦调查局坦白了(自己的罪行)。我当时并不清楚他被捕的原因。”

吉姆·坎贝尔的新书《对话麦道夫》(麦格希教育出版,将于4月27日面世)中便提及了这个小插曲,从中也能看出许多有关麦道夫本人和这本书(的特别之处)。律师怎么可以公开谈论有关自己客户的轶事呢?按照律师-客户特权(Attorney-client privilege),这种行为本属禁止之列,但正在北卡罗莱纳州监狱服刑的麦道夫放弃了这种特权,并授权索尔金接受了坎贝尔的采访。

麦道夫的妻子露丝也与坎贝尔进行过对话,接受过采访的还有麦道夫的儿子安德鲁、多名前任雇员、部分受控人员的律师、负责相关调查的联邦调查局特工、法务财务顾问,以及其他许多此前未曾就该起史上最大且最具破坏性的庞氏骗局接受过作家或记者采访的人士。最重要的是,麦道夫本人在监狱服刑期间也与坎贝尔有过电子邮件沟通,他还给后者寄去了多封颇具篇幅的手书信件。

如此一来,《对话麦道夫》就成了一部独一无二的著作,也很可能会成为那场让全世界成千上万投资者陷入贫困的大规模犯罪事件的权威信息来源(除非他们根本就不是投资者)。

各界投资者总共交给了麦道夫195亿美元资金,虽然麦道夫谎称本金及投资收益总计已达648亿美元,但他实际并未进行任何投资。麦道夫的首席副手弗兰克·迪帕斯卡利(被其律师称之为首席欺诈官)告诉坎贝尔,“一切都是假的、都是虚构的。这么做不对,我当时就知道。”

《对话麦道夫:揭露史上最臭名昭著的庞氏骗局背后的故事》

那么,麦道夫与坎贝尔进行详谈的原因是什么呢?坎贝尔在书中写道:“我推测麦道夫是想把我当作自己发声的渠道,希望通过我来讲出他对整个事件的看法。不过我敢说,他肯定会对我的发现感到失望的。”坎贝尔是一名顾问,在华尔街工作多年,同时还是电台节目“吉姆·坎贝尔商业对话”(Business Talk with Jim Campbell)的主持人。

按照麦道夫的说法,他的大规模诈骗行为持续了至少16年的时间,(或者更可能如坎贝尔所称的那样持续了至少35年的时间),在此背景之下,很难想象麦道夫会如何讲述他的故事。不过在《对话麦道夫》中明显可以看出他非常希望得到他人理解,坎贝尔称之为“对他人理解的尼克松式的病态需求”。

在信中,麦道夫承认自己犯下了滔天大罪,但却试图逃避责任,不断以荒诞不经的理由为自己辩护。他在信中写道:“是华尔街的腐败文化让我变成了现在这副摸样,这里的每个人都在做着这种不法勾当。”

他甚至还为开始“庞氏骗局”寻找借口。他声称自己合法的投资业务在1992年遇到了困境,当时一笔极为复杂的交易出现了问题,而他最大的投资者(所谓“四大”)“未能履行承诺”。为了误导其他投资者,使之相信业务仍在正常开展,他走上了一条不归路:将旗下投资基金变成了庞氏骗局。

在麦道夫的故事中,他并非一个生来就想做罪犯的坏人。虽然他也承认自己在1992年的那场危机中犯了很多错误,但他仍然希望外界相信自己是为歹人所迫才犯下了种种罪行。对此,坎贝尔不买账。他的分析表明,在1992年之前,麦道夫的“庞氏骗局已持续了数十年之久。”

在《对话麦道夫》一书中,有关麦道夫本人的疑团最为引人注目。作为一名商人,他无疑取得过辉煌的成就,不仅协助创建了纳斯达克,更曾在该组织担任主席一职。曾有投资者愿意出价30亿美元收购他创办的做市公司,但由于担心买家尽职调查会使其庞氏骗局露馅,他只得选择拒绝。

证据显示,案发之前,他未曾向自己的妻子和两个儿子透露过任何有关自己犯罪行为的信息。在他从监狱寄给自己儿子安迪及其未婚妻的纸条上只写着:“亲爱的安迪和凯瑟琳,对我所做的一切,我感到非常抱歉。父留。”除此之外双方便未有更多和解的动作。安迪后来死于癌症,麦道夫的另一个儿子马克则于2010年自缢而亡。

另一个挥之不去的问题是:既然庞氏骗局终将破灭,麦道夫难道没有意识到自己注定会失败吗?

可能没有。坎贝尔认为,麦道夫并未制订退出策略。直到案发前的最后时刻,他仍然非常受人尊敬,投资者都非常渴望把资金交给他管理。显然,他相信自己可以将骗局进行到自己身故为止,如果2008年的金融危机没有导致出现客户挤兑(当然这是不可能的),也许他真的可以做到。他一定知道他的投资者、雇员和家人也在遭受着同样、甚至更深重的痛苦,只是他早已不在乎这些了。(财富中文网)

译者:梁宇

审校:夏林

2008年12月11日上午,纽约知名律师艾克·索尔金正在华盛顿特区一所幼儿园里看着孙女玩耍。上午9点半左右,他的手机响了。打来电话的是他的一位客户——伯尼·麦道夫,后者开口说道:“我被联邦调查局抓了,现在正铐在他们总部的椅子上,我需要你的帮助。”索尔金后来回忆道:“11号早上打电话给我之前,麦道夫已经向联邦调查局坦白了(自己的罪行)。我当时并不清楚他被捕的原因。”

吉姆·坎贝尔的新书《对话麦道夫》(麦格希教育出版,将于4月27日面世)中便提及了这个小插曲,从中也能看出许多有关麦道夫本人和这本书(的特别之处)。律师怎么可以公开谈论有关自己客户的轶事呢?按照律师-客户特权(Attorney-client privilege),这种行为本属禁止之列,但正在北卡罗莱纳州监狱服刑的麦道夫放弃了这种特权,并授权索尔金接受了坎贝尔的采访。

麦道夫的妻子露丝也与坎贝尔进行过对话,接受过采访的还有麦道夫的儿子安德鲁、多名前任雇员、部分受控人员的律师、负责相关调查的联邦调查局特工、法务财务顾问,以及其他许多此前未曾就该起史上最大且最具破坏性的庞氏骗局接受过作家或记者采访的人士。最重要的是,麦道夫本人在监狱服刑期间也与坎贝尔有过电子邮件沟通,他还给后者寄去了多封颇具篇幅的手书信件。

如此一来,《对话麦道夫》就成了一部独一无二的著作,也很可能会成为那场让全世界成千上万投资者陷入贫困的大规模犯罪事件的权威信息来源(除非他们根本就不是投资者)。

各界投资者总共交给了麦道夫195亿美元资金,虽然麦道夫谎称本金及投资收益总计已达648亿美元,但他实际并未进行任何投资。麦道夫的首席副手弗兰克·迪帕斯卡利(被其律师称之为首席欺诈官)告诉坎贝尔,“一切都是假的、都是虚构的。这么做不对,我当时就知道。”

那么,麦道夫与坎贝尔进行详谈的原因是什么呢?坎贝尔在书中写道:“我推测麦道夫是想把我当作自己发声的渠道,希望通过我来讲出他对整个事件的看法。不过我敢说,他肯定会对我的发现感到失望的。”坎贝尔是一名顾问,在华尔街工作多年,同时还是电台节目“吉姆·坎贝尔商业对话”(Business Talk with Jim Campbell)的主持人。

按照麦道夫的说法,他的大规模诈骗行为持续了至少16年的时间,(或者更可能如坎贝尔所称的那样持续了至少35年的时间),在此背景之下,很难想象麦道夫会如何讲述他的故事。不过在《对话麦道夫》中明显可以看出他非常希望得到他人理解,坎贝尔称之为“对他人理解的尼克松式的病态需求”。

在信中,麦道夫承认自己犯下了滔天大罪,但却试图逃避责任,不断以荒诞不经的理由为自己辩护。他在信中写道:“是华尔街的腐败文化让我变成了现在这副摸样,这里的每个人都在做着这种不法勾当。”

他甚至还为开始“庞氏骗局”寻找借口。他声称自己合法的投资业务在1992年遇到了困境,当时一笔极为复杂的交易出现了问题,而他最大的投资者(所谓“四大”)“未能履行承诺”。为了误导其他投资者,使之相信业务仍在正常开展,他走上了一条不归路:将旗下投资基金变成了庞氏骗局。

在麦道夫的故事中,他并非一个生来就想做罪犯的坏人。虽然他也承认自己在1992年的那场危机中犯了很多错误,但他仍然希望外界相信自己是为歹人所迫才犯下了种种罪行。对此,坎贝尔不买账。他的分析表明,在1992年之前,麦道夫的“庞氏骗局已持续了数十年之久。”

在《对话麦道夫》一书中,有关麦道夫本人的疑团最为引人注目。作为一名商人,他无疑取得过辉煌的成就,不仅协助创建了纳斯达克,更曾在该组织担任主席一职。曾有投资者愿意出价30亿美元收购他创办的做市公司,但由于担心买家尽职调查会使其庞氏骗局露馅,他只得选择拒绝。

证据显示,案发之前,他未曾向自己的妻子和两个儿子透露过任何有关自己犯罪行为的信息。在他从监狱寄给自己儿子安迪及其未婚妻的纸条上只写着:“亲爱的安迪和凯瑟琳,对我所做的一切,我感到非常抱歉。父留。”除此之外双方便未有更多和解的动作。安迪后来死于癌症,麦道夫的另一个儿子马克则于2010年自缢而亡。

另一个挥之不去的问题是:既然庞氏骗局终将破灭,麦道夫难道没有意识到自己注定会失败吗?

可能没有。坎贝尔认为,麦道夫并未制订退出策略。直到案发前的最后时刻,他仍然非常受人尊敬,投资者都非常渴望把资金交给他管理。显然,他相信自己可以将骗局进行到自己身故为止,如果2008年的金融危机没有导致出现客户挤兑(当然这是不可能的),也许他真的可以做到。他一定知道他的投资者、雇员和家人也在遭受着同样、甚至更深重的痛苦,只是他早已不在乎这些了。(财富中文网)

译者:梁宇

审校:夏林

On the morning of December 11, 2008, prominent New York attorney Ike Sorkin was at a nursery school in Washington, D.C., watching his granddaughter play. Around 9:30 a.m., his cell phone rang. It was a client, Bernie Madoff, whose first words were, “I’m handcuffed to a chair at FBI headquarters. I need your help.” Sorkin later recalled, “By the time he called me on the phone that morning of the 11th, he had already confessed to the FBI. I had no idea why he’d been arrested.”

That vignette, related in Madoff Talks (McGraw-Hill Education), a new book by Jim Campbell publishing April 27, reveals much about Madoff and about the book. A lawyer telling anecdotes about his client? Attorney-client privilege forbids it, but Madoff, from prison in North Carolina, had waived privilege and given Sorkin permission to talk to Campbell.

Madoff’s wife, Ruth, also talked to Campbell, as did his son Andrew, many of Bernie’s former employees, the lawyers of some who were charged, the FBI agent who led the investigation, forensic finance consultants, and many others who have not spoken to any other author or journalist writing about history’s largest and most devastating Ponzi scheme. Most important, Madoff himself exchanged email with Campbell and sent him long, handwritten letters, all from prison.

Madoff Talks is thus unique and will likely stand as the authoritative source on this massive crime that impoverished thousands of investors around the world—except that they weren’t investors at all.

Of the $19.5 billion they entrusted to Madoff, which he falsely told them had grown to $64.8 billion, not a single dollar was ever invested in anything. Madoff’s chief lieutenant, Frank DiPascali—whose own lawyer referred to him as the Chief Fraud Perpetuating Officer—told Campbell, “It was all fake. It was all fictitious. It was wrong, and I knew it at the time.”

So why did Madoff decide to communicate at length with Campbell? “I believe, from his perspective, he saw me as an avenue to get his side of the story out,” writes Campbell, a consultant and Wall Street veteran who hosts a syndicated radio program, Business Talk with Jim Campbell. “He will, I am sure, be disappointed with my findings.”

It’s hard to imagine what Madoff’s side of the story might be, given that he ran a gigantic fraud for at least 16 years, as he maintains, or more likely for 35 years or longer, as Campbell argues. Yet it becomes clear in Madoff Talks that he feels what Campbell calls a “Nixonian pathological need to be understood.”

In surreal passages from his letters, Madoff acknowledges that he committed a huge crime but constantly tries to deflect responsibility. “I was a product of the corrupt culture of Wall Street,” he writes—the “everybody does it” defense.

He even provides an excuse for starting the Ponzi scheme. He claims that his legitimate investing business hit a bad patch in 1992, when an incredibly complex trade went bad and his biggest investors, known as the Big Four, “failed to honor their commitments.” In order to mislead the rest of his investors into thinking all was well, he started down the fatal path of turning his investment fund into a Ponzi scheme.

That’s Madoff’s story – that he didn’t really want to become a criminal. While acknowledging that he made multiple errors in that 1992 crisis, he wants us to believe that bad guys pushed him into doing what he did. Campbell doesn’t buy it. His analysis suggests that by 1992, “the Ponzi scheme had been underway perhaps for a couple of decades.”

What comes through most strongly in Madoff Talks is the enigma of Madoff himself. He was impressively and legitimately accomplished, having helped to build NASDAQ and serving as its chairman. He founded a market-making firm that he could have sold at one point for as much as $3 billion; but he couldn’t sell it because any prospective buyer’s due diligence would have uncovered the Ponzi scheme.

Evidence suggests he protected his wife and two sons from any knowledge of his criminal enterprise. Yet from prison he sent a note to his son Andy and his fiancée that said, in its entirety: “Dear Andy and Catherine, I’m so sorry for everything. Dad” There was no further reconciliation. Andy has since died of cancer, and Madoff’s other son, Mark, hanged himself in 2010.

One other question lingers: Since Ponzi schemes must inevitably collapse, didn’t Madoff realize he was doomed?

Maybe not. Campbell believes Madoff had no exit strategy. Until the very end he remained highly respected, with investors eager to give him their money. He apparently believed he could keep the scam going until he died, and if the financial crisis of 2008 hadn’t prompted hordes of customers to withdraw funds—which, of course, weren’t there—maybe he could have. He had to know the suffering for his investors, employees, and family would have been just as bad, perhaps worse. But he was long past caring.

最新:
  • 热读文章
  • 热门视频
活动
扫码打开财富Plus App