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师法自然:8大新兴仿生技术盘点

师法自然:8大新兴仿生技术盘点

Jennifer Alsever 2013年04月08日
能源短缺、交通拥堵……人类社会的很多顽疾都可以从大自然找到答案,仿生学领域的科学家们正在朝着这个方向努力,而他们的老师则包括壁虎、蜜蜂、荷叶、贻贝、白蚁、鱼群、鲨鱼,以及萤火虫。

    想象一下,蜜蜂为节能建筑和自动驾驶汽车提供灵感,鲨鱼帮助人们减少医院里的感染,壁虎为悬挂大屏幕电视机出主意,这些已经成为现实。科学家们在方兴未艾的仿生学领域通过模拟自然来解决人类社会的问题。如今,这门科学已经引起了各行各业的兴趣,从能源到消费品,几乎无所不包。咨询公司Biomimicry 3.8的创始人珍妮•班娜斯说:“大量研究人员正在通过模拟自然进行发明创造。”她的公司曾利用仿生学技术帮助高露洁棕榄(Colgate-Palmolive)、李维斯(Levis)、耐克(Nike)以及波音(Boeing)等公司革新产品。下面我们就来盘点一下,自然世界培育出的新技术创意:

    Imagine a day when bees provide inspiration for energy efficient buildings and cars that drive themselves, sharks offer the promise to reduced hospital infections and geckos give ideas for hanging big-screen TV sets. It's already here. The burgeoning field of biomimicry, in which scientists copy nature to solve human problems, has drawn interest across industries -- from energy to consumer goods. "There is a whole pipeline of people inventing by looking to the natural world," says Janine Benyus, founder of Biomimicry 3.8, a consultancy that has helped Colgate-Palmolive (CL, Fortune 500), Levis, Nike (NKE, Fortune 500) and Boeing (BA, Fortune 500) reformulate products using biomimicry Here's a look at how nature is breeding new ideas.

壁虎

    壁虎能够攀附在光滑的表面,来自艾姆赫斯特学院(Amherst College)的科学家们研究了其中的奥秘,以模拟开发一种可重复使用的面料用来悬挂重物。壁虎能够抗拒地心引力的秘诀在于:肌腱和皮肤的独特排列。科学家研制出的面料名为“壁虎皮”(geckskin),它有望在2014年推向市场。一块索引卡片大小的面料就能在光滑的表面上悬挂最高700磅的任何重物,包括玻璃,也包括一块42英寸的电视屏幕。

Geckos

    Amherst University scientists studied how geckos cling flat to surfaces to develop a copycat reusable fabric for hanging heavy loads. The gravity-defying secret: a unique arrangement of tendons and skin. The fabric, called "geckskin," could be on the market in 2014. A piece the size of an index card could hold everything from glass to a 42-inch TV screen -- anything up to 700 pounds -- on a flat surface.

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