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2019年,这五招有助于职业发展

Ann Fisher 2019年01月31日

以下五种做法可以让你在未来12个月中改变自己的工作生活。

今年看起来有可能与去年非常相似,而且只会越来越相似。对2018年众多热门工作技能的需求依然在上涨(而且甚至比2018年的增速更快)。雇主依然更愿意发放非固定的补偿,例如一次性绩效奖金,而不是采取涨薪这种会推高自己日常管理成本的举措。此外,一些经济学家所预测的早该发生的另一场经济衰退,在如今看来依然只不过是远方地平线上的一朵不成气候的乌云罢了。

然而,如果你一心要与时俱进,抑或甚至为自己的职业未来早做打算,以下五种做法可以让你在未来12个月中改变自己的工作生活。你不妨:

1. 要求涨薪,或者换一份薪资更高的工作

由于工作机会众多,越来越多的雇员已经失去了耐心,因为很多雇主在过去十多年以来提供的薪资年增幅只有微不足道的3%。部分原因在于,你可能会觉得手头比上一年更为拮据,但这并非只是你的感觉:PayScale最新的季度分析显示,2018年通胀调整后薪资实际上下降了1.3%,该现象几乎涵盖除IT之外的所有行业,以及旧金山大区之外的所有美国城市(没想到吧)。难怪职工安置公司Addison Group在最近对全美约1000名雇员的调查中发现,尽管72%的被调查对象称他们对其工作感到满意,但有60%的人正在寻找新工作,他们表示薪资是最大的原因。

想要在这场超大型抢椅游戏中提升自己获胜的概率吗?不妨在搜索时关注那些雇员数量在50至499名之间的公司。ADP最新的月就业报告称,它们在2018年12月招聘了12.9万名新员工,是员工数量500名以及以上公司同月招聘数量(5.4万名)的两倍多。

2. 踌躇满志地参加众多的退休人士欢送会

在婴儿潮时期出生的那一代人中,最年长的(1946年生)在2011年已经有65岁,但很多人推迟了退休,有的是因为财务原因,有的则是因为他们热爱自己的工作,或者两者兼而有之。这一现象导致企业出现了顽固的首席级别高管晋升瓶颈,而受此影响,20世纪60年代和70年代出生的人士也就没法把自己的职位让给年轻人。这一现象被人力资源部门称之为“灰色天花板”,它也是那些有志向上发展的千禧一代和年轻人才感到沮丧的原因之一。如果你也是其中一员,请不要泄气。调查公司Glassdoor发布的一篇新报告预测,婴儿潮时期人士的大规模退休最终将为美国企业带来不利影响。该调查称,这一影响将于2019年开始,而且会延续数十年的时间,因为后续数代人也将逐渐步入退休年龄。

随着大多数发达国家出生率的下降,美国出生率在2018年达到了30年以来的新低——1.76。这意味着劳动力市场的紧张局面在今后很长一段时间内都会处于无解状态,这对于雇主来说是个令人头疼的问题。然而,如果你一直在等待婴儿潮时期的人挂出“告老还乡”的牌子,那么这无疑是个好消息。

3. 免费在线学习区块链、高级编程语言Python或分布式系统基础架构Hadoop

技术员工安置公司Rose International的创始人兼主席苏·芭提雅指出,人们每天可能会与多种技术打交道,但却对其内部工作原理知之甚少,也鲜有人考虑“这些技术如何能够让自己或同事的工作变得更好、更快,并降低工作成本。”她提到,大多数的知识型工作者会用具体的职业门类来标榜自己,例如“我是做营销的”或很多人会使用“我不是技术人员。”但IT与其他职业的界限正在迅速变得模糊,而且很快将会消失。例如,IBM预测,在未来两年中,对技术和数据分析技能有要求的工作岗位的数量将从当前的约36.4万个增至270多万个,而且其中很多岗位都与人工智能有关,这些工作需要将IT专长与算法无法提供的“软”技能(例如同理心、想象力和幽默感等)进行新的整合。

我们基本无法猜测未来的工作到底需要什么样的技能。(有孩子的人不妨了解一下:世界经济论坛开展的一项新调查预计,如今65%的学前儿童在未来将从事当前并不存在的工作。)芭提雅指出,可以明确的是,你可以在2019年通过尽可能多地去学习那些颠覆你所在行业的技术,对此进行未雨绸缪。可以从Coursera和edX这样的在线课程开始。她还表示,不要认为自己并不是学习“科学、技术、工程和数学”(STEM)的料,并以此来为自己设置条条框框。即便是学习Python这类基本的编程语言也可能是十分有用的,因为它可以“帮助你理解编程员的思考方式,这样你便可以更加轻松地与IT团队打交道。”

4. 学会适应这一现象:没错,老板在监督

如果当前对社交媒体隐私的侵犯让你感到愤怒不已,那么你必然不会喜欢雇主已经使用或将要使用的一项技术。它通常有一个十分悦耳的名字“倾听科技”,实为一系列复杂的数据搜集工具,用于搜集和报告有关个人的信息,从工作日期间在办公室周边地区移动的频率和距离,一直到你登录电脑的频率和时间。一项名为“电子邮件抓取”的做法通过在邮件对话中植入复杂的算法,来确定你的思想状态以及对工作的专注程度。你的椅子可能装有感应器,用于记录你在桌前坐了多长时间。这类技术还有很多很多。

公司将在2019年加强对员工的监控,而且这类技术“如今不只是观察而已,还会发挥督促作用”,研究雇主技术使用情况的Gartner集团副总裁布莱恩·克洛普说道。如果你用的是这种“告密”椅子,“你的电脑将在你坐下1个小时之后提示你应该站起来走动走动。”

克洛普认为,所有这类侦测都是出于善意的。例如,员工可能白天都在电脑上,而且晚上也会使用电脑到很晚的时间,但他们又不大愿意在例行雇员调查中对其无止尽的工作时长发牢骚。“在看到这一切之后,经理们可能会做出的反应是:‘好吧,让我们来调整下这位员工的工作量。’”克洛普说道。这听起来毫无坏处,但Gartner最近的调查显示,41%的公司使用了“倾听科技”来搜索医疗数据,对这一领域隐私权的侵犯对于大多数美国人来说都是无法接受的。

即便如此,克洛普称,在公司调查的雇员当中,也有人对雇主采用高科技进行窥探的做法毫不在乎,而且其比例已经从2015年的10%升至2018年的30%。他指出,如果雇主“直接告诉人们自己在搜集数据,并向其展示该技术对[雇员]的帮助。该数字会升至50%。我们预计不在意这一技术的员工比例还会上升。但公司一直都存在一些核心人员——我们认为这个比例在20%或25%——他们永远都无法接受这种做法。”因此工作面试中又多了一项需要询问的事项。

5. #MeToo运动升温,感受到其热度了吗?(但愿是间接的)

Gartner对2019年的最后一项预测是:在去年导致数百位知名人士被扫地出门的反性骚扰运动#MeToo远未结束,而且其声势将进一步发展壮大。克洛普指出:“2019年遭到开除的高管将比2018年更多。我们将看到雇主对这类指控的态度发生重大变化,即从‘我们并不知道存在此事’变为‘我们已经积极地查出了违法者,并进行了相应的处理。’”克洛普表示,由于“三缄其口这种做法并不奏效”,因此新的方法如果不实用,也将成为空谈。他在提及谷歌近期的动荡时指出:“如果纸终究包不住火,那么雇主自然会希望直面这一问题,并将之公之于众,这样,雇主还可以借此来控制舆情。”记下了。(财富中文网)

本文作者安妮·费希尔是职场专家,也是提供职场建议的专栏作家。她在《财富》开设“解决问题”(Work It Out)专栏,向读者提供21世纪的工作与生活指导。

译者:冯丰

审校:夏林

This year is likely to look a lot like last year, only more so. Demand for many of the most-wanted job skills of 2018 is still rising (and at an even faster clip than in 2018). Employers would still rather hand out variable pay, like one-time performance bonuses, than bloat overhead with higher salaries. And another recession, which some economists say is ominously overdue, remains, for now, just a small dark cloud on a distant horizon.

Still, if you’re intent on keeping up with the zeitgeist—and maybe even future-proofing your career—here are five ways you could shake up your work life in the next 12 months. You might:

1. Negotiate for a raise, or change jobs for more money.

With opportunities so plentiful, more people are losing patience with the piddling 3% salary increases employers have been handing out for the past decade or so. That’s partly because, if you feel more pinched financially than a year ago, you’re not imagining it: Inflation-adjusted wages actually dropped 1.3% in 2018, in almost every industry except IT, and everywhere in the U.S. except (surprise) the San Francisco metro area, according to PayScale’s latest quarterly analysis. No wonder staffing firm Addison Group found in a recent survey of about 1,000 employees nationwide that, although 72% say they’re happy in their work, 60% are job hunting anyway, citing pay as the biggest reason.

Want to boost your chances of snagging a seat in this gigantic game of musical chairs? Try focusing your search on businesses with 50 to 499 employees. They brought 129,000 new staffers on board in December 2018, says ADP’s latest monthly employment report—well over twice the 54,000 people hired during the same month by enterprises with 500 employees or more.

2. Raise a glass at lots of retirement parties.

The oldest Baby Boomers, born in 1946, reached age 65 in 2011, but many have put off retiring, either for financial reasons or because they enjoy what they do, or both. That has created a persistent bottleneck of C-suite positions and other senior roles occupied by folks in their 60s and 70s. Dubbed the “gray ceiling” by HR types, it’s a source of frustration for millennials and other young talent itching to move up. If that includes you, take heart. A new report from Glassdoor predicts that a tsunami of Boomer retirements will finally hit corporate America, beginning in 2019 and continuing “for decades to come,” the study says, as successive generations in turn reach retirement age.

Combined with falling birth rates in most of the developed world—the U.S. birth rate hit a 30-year low of 1.76 in 2018 — this means no end in sight for tight labor markets, which will be tough on employers. But if you’ve been waiting for a Boomer to hang out the “Gone Fishing” sign, it’s unalloyed good news.

3. Learn Blockchain, Python, or Hadoop online for free.

You might come across several types of tech every day without understanding much about their inner workings, or considering “how they could serve you and your coworkers better, faster, and cheaper,” notes Sue Bhatia, founder and chairperson of tech staffing firm Rose International. She notes that most knowledge workers pigeonhole themselves into narrow categories—”I’m a marketing person” or, significantly, “I’m not a tech person.” But the boundaries between IT and everything else are blurring fast and will soon disappear. IBM forecasts, for instance, that in the next two years, the number of jobs requiring tech and data analysis skills is set to explode, from about 364,000 current openings to more than 2.7 million; and many of those roles are related to artificial intelligence, which calls for new combinations of IT know-how and “soft” skills that algorithms (so far) lack, like empathy, imagination, and a sense of humor.

Exactly what form work will take in the future is nearly impossible to guess. (Got kids? Think about this: A new World Economic Forum study estimates that 65% of primary-school-age children today will eventually have a job that does not yet exist.) What is clear, Bhatia says, is that you can future-proof yourself in 2019 by learning as much as you can about whatever technology is rocking your industry. Start with free courses from sites like Coursera and edX. “Don’t set limits on yourself by assuming you’re ‘not cut out for’ STEM,” she adds. Even studying up on a basic programming language like Python can be useful, since it will “help you understand how programmers think, so you’ll have an easier time interacting with your IT team.”

4. Get used to the idea that, yes, Big Brother is watching.

If the ongoing flap over social-media privacy has got your dander up, you’re not going to like the technology your employer either already uses or probably soon will. Often called by the friendly-sounding name “listening technology,” this is a range of sophisticated data-gathering tools that collect and report information about you—from how often, and how far, you move around the office during the day, to how often and when you log onto your computer. A practice called “email scraping” applies a complex algorithm to your email conversations, designed to determine your state of mind and your level of engagement in your job. Your chair may contain sensors that record how long you’ve been parked at your desk. And the list goes on.

2019 will see more monitoring of employees, and now it “will go beyond observation and start nudging,” says Brian Kropp, a group vice president at Gartner who has studied employers’ use of the technology. If you have one of those tattletale chairs, “your computer will notify you after an hour of sitting that you should get up and take a little walk.”

Kropp contends that the intent of all this spying is benign. People who hesitate to complain about their endless work hours on traditional employee surveys, for example, might be logging on to their computers not only all day but far into the evening too. “Seeing that, a manager’s response could be, ‘Okay, let’s look at adjusting that person’s workload’,” says Kropp. Sounds harmless enough, but a recent Gartner study found that 41% of companies use “listening technology” to ferret out medical data, an intrusion into one area where most Americans consider their right to privacy to be inviolable.

Even so, among employees the firm has surveyed, Kropp says the percentage who claim they’re not bothered by employers’ high-tech snooping has climbed from just 10% in 2015 to 30% in 2018. That rises to 50% if an employer “tells people up front that they’re gathering the data and can show how it helps [employees],” he notes. “We expect that comfort level to increase. But there will always be a core group of people—we think 20% or 25%—who are just not ever going to be okay with it.” One more thing to ask about in job interviews.

5. Feel the heat (if only indirectly) as the #MeToo movement picks up steam.

One last prediction from Gartner for 2019: Far from winding down, the #MeToo anti-sexual-misconduct movement that led to hundreds of high-profile firings last year will gain even more momentum. “More executives will be ousted in 2019 than in 2018,” says Kropp. “We’ll see a major shift in employers’ response to accusations, from ‘We didn’t know this was going on’ to ‘We’ve actively sought out wrongdoers and dealt with them.'” The new approach is nothing if not pragmatic, since “trying to hush things up doesn’t work,” Kropp observes. Pointing to the recent turmoil at Google, he adds, “If something is going to come out anyway, you as an employer want to get out in front of it and address it publicly, so that you control the conversation.” Noted.

Anne Fisher is a career expert and advice columnist who writes “Work It Out,” Fortune’s guide to working and living in the 21st century.

 

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