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商业 - 科技

白领也危险了:5个正在被机器人夺走的“高大上”职业

Erik Sherman 2015年03月06日

一直到不久以前,受到机器人冲击的还主要是蓝领工作,尤其是装配线上的蓝领工人。但现在,人工智能、机器人和其它颠覆性的新技术正在挑战以前貌似不容易被取代的白领工作,比如:金融和体育记者、麻醉师、外科医生、律师助理、金融分析师等。

    金融和体育记者

    收集信息,采访当事人,问问何人在何时何地发生了何事,原因为何,然后写出结果,这就是记者的日常工作。但是只要把信息变成机器可读的格式,你就具有了颠覆记者这个行业的可能性。

    自2014年6月起,美联社就开始利用Automated Insights公司的软件和扎克斯投资研究公司的数据,试验由计算机自动创建企业收益报道的可能性。在排除了试验初期出现的一些问题后,整个生成报告的过程基本上不会出现差错,甚至可能还要超过人工报告的水平。

    目前,美联社(AP)的体育部门正在利用自动化技术,生成一些小型体育赛事的报道。美联社表示,这种做法可以解放员工,让他们去做更重要的事情,同时也缓解了媒体预算。软件科学家、《机器人崛起:科技与未来失业的威胁》一书的作者马丁•福特表示:“美联社称,该技术可以根据数据撰写出一份颇有吸引力的文章,水平不亚于一名经验丰富的作家。”考虑到有些大学毕业生的写作水平确实不怎么样,加上“机器要想超越一名大学生,需要克服的障碍并不那么高”,记者这个行当的前景的确令人堪忧。曾几何时,刚入行的菜鸟们也要干些低难度的活,学学基本的手艺。这才不到一年,记者的潜在生存空间已经变小了。

    Financial and Sports Reporters

    Gathering information; interviewing people; answering who, what when, where, why, and how; and writing the results. It's the daily grind for journalists. But make the information machine readable and you have the potential for disruption.

    Associated Press has run an experiment of automatically creating corporate earnings reports since June 2014 with software from Automated Insights and data from Zacks Investment Research. After working through problems at the outset, the process is virtually error-free, which likely beats what humans would do.

    AP's sports department is using automation to generate reports for events with small audiences. The organization says it frees up staff to do more important things, helping stretch media budgets. "The company claims it can weave that data into a compelling narrative that on a skill level an experienced writer can do," said Martin Ford, a software entrepreneur and author of Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future. Given the sometimes questionable level of writing demonstrated by college graduates and "the hurdle machines have to cross to out-perform humans with college degrees isn't that high." But at one time junior reporters would have done the duller work and learned basics of their craft. In less than a year, the potential pool has become smaller.

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