甚至连最受尊崇的媒体机构去年也未能交出一张及格的成绩单。《纽约时报》（The New York Times）12月份宣布裁减编辑团队。电视新闻的收视率继续呈下降趋势。《华尔街日报》（The Wall Street Journal）则被“釜底抽薪”：其母公司新闻集团（News Corp.）宣布该集团将重组为两部分：一部分经营包括福克斯新闻网（Fox News）在内的娱乐资产，另一部分则经营包括《华尔街日报》在内的印刷出版资产。
与此同时，各大出版机构合纵连横的趋势依然在继续。最新一个案例是，兰登书屋（Random House）和企鹅出版社（Penguin）于10月份宣布合并。近来有传言称，哈珀柯林斯出版社（HarperCollins）或将与西蒙舒斯特出版公司（Simon & Schuster）合并，所有这些努力都是为了抵御亚马逊公司（Amazon）的咄咄逼人的攻势。
In a year with a highly contentious presidential election, the Olympics, and tragedy, after tragedy, after tragedy, you'd think 2012 would have been a banner year for American media. Not so. The media world is on no firmer ground than it was a year ago as it continues its quest for a sustainable business model. But that doesn't mean the industry lacked for signs of life or teachable moments in the past year. What have we learned in 2012?
Provocative covers and paywalls are not enough
Among the carnage this year: Newsweek ended its print operations. The Times-Picayune in New Orleans stopped daily delivery, and even Warren Buffett, patron saint of newspapers, shuttered one of his holdings.
Even the media's most venerable institutions didn't get a pass this year. The New York Times (NYT) announced newsroom reductions in December. TV news network viewership continued its downward trend. And The Wall Street Journal effectively had the rug pulled out from under it when parent company News Corp. (NWS) announced it was restructuring itself into two operations: one with entertainment properties (Fox News included) and the other with its print publication properties (WSJ included).
Meanwhile, the big publishing houses continued their march towards consolidation -- most recently, Random House and Penguin announced a merger in October, and rumors have circulated over a potential HarperCollins-Simon & Schuster pairing -- all in an effort to give Amazon (AMZN) a run for its money.
As advertisers continue to chase splintering audiences to online, social, and video platforms, it's clear that traditional media is in need of change, but it's also becoming obvious that putting up a paywall and calling it a day isn't enough.
Tech dips another toe into the media pool
The likes of YouTube, Twitter, and Tumblr all grew and gained popularity in part because they were open to content from anyone. That's not going to change, but citizen journalism is no longer the starring act it once was at these sites. In an experiment of reverse engineering, tech companies are now hiring professional journalists to edit, curate, and create content for their massive user bases. Tumblr took a step in this direction in February when it hired its own editors, while LinkedIn (LNKD) continued to aggregate and build out original content as part of an effort it launched in 2011. Amazon is already in the publishing and movie production business. Twitter is flirting with media-like products, like "destination pages" with curated content. And in an effort to become tomorrow's TV, YouTube announced in October that it's doubling down on professionally produced channels: among the expanded offerings, an ESPN channel and a comedy channel with Michael Cera and Sarah Silverman.